Perama Cave is geologically linked to the presence and evolution of Lake Pamvotis. Dated to about 1.5 million years it was part of the lake’s riverbed section when the waters of Pamvotis covered the entire basin of the city of Ioannina and the hill Goritsa was an island.
Mt. Goritsa risies above the village of Perama and Limni Ioanninon (Lake Ioannina). Perama Cave is located inside Goritsa hill. The cave is part of the bed of an underground river and was formed in the pre-Quaternary period, about 1.5 Million years ago. The river formed three cave levels. The most famous feature in this cave is the stalagmite known as the Cross. It started as a cloven stalagmite, developed from drops falling from two stalactites above. Once the tip of one stalactite broke and fell down. But instead of hitting the floor, it came to rest between the twin summits of the stalagmite. Subsequent growth first anchored the stalactite and then continued the growth of the stalagmite, creating a cross.
In 1956 the tooth of a cave bear, the first ever discovered in Greece, was found in this cave by Anna Petrocheilou. An excavation, conducted by Ioannis Petrocheilos in the same year, discovered teeth and bones of an entire cave bear family, which lived some 600.000 years ago. He also observed a new species of dolichopod. This was examined by the French bio-speleologist Chappuis, who named it Dolichopod petrocheilosus in honour of its finder.
This discovery prompted the Swedish specialist K. Lindberg to undertake further bio-speleological research, with the result that the following orders of arthropods (invertebrate animals) were found: Oligochaeta, Arpacticidae, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Diplopoda, Collembola, Arachnidae, Acarea as well as the larvae of various insects.
The total surface area of the cave is 14.800 sq.m and the tour walk about 1.100m.
The average temperature is 18°C, while the humidity can reach 100%.
Daily, Weekends& Holidays 09.00 – 17.00
More information about the cave here